The Essence of Psychology

The Essence of Psychoanalysis Through Giants’ Minds

Over the weekend, and today, I felt like it would be an excellent idea to combine psychology, psychoanalysis, positive mental attitude (PMA), and stoicism in one post.

It should be noted that PMA Science, which is a combination of psychology, positive mental attitude (PMA), and Stoicism. Additionally, we can include psychoanalysis, other sciences of the mind, emotions revealed, and cycles under the PMA Science umbrella.

In this blog I would like to shed some light on some of the most interesting influences in Psychology, Psychiatry, Emotions Revealed and Psychoanalysis. These influencers’ wisdom closely aligns with PMA’s mindset and Stoicism’s wisdom philosophy.

Let’s dive in …

A remarkable symphony of the mind, mindset, micro-emotions and virtues.

It is said that the human mind is a grand symphony that never ceases to amaze. This symphony consists of both electrical and biological signals. However, in this post we are more likely to discuss conscious and subconscious thoughts and cognitive functions than chemical processes and psychological constructs.

This majestic neuro-symphony isn’t easy to understand to most common people, though through some of Giants’ Minds magnificent works such as Freud, Jung, Adler, and Ekman, their researched work gives us information and light to understand the melodies of the mind and we also have the harmony of Stoic wisdom, and the science of a positive attitude (PMA) to enlighten the mind, emotions and behavior of humans in a more easy to comprehend way. For instance, the Stoic philosopher Epictetus said, “It’s not what happens to you, but how you react to it that matters.” This idea has been echoed by many psychologists and is foundational to PMA science.

Harmony in Discord: The Freudian Perspective

Freud was a fascinating guy who worked in the fields of psychology, psychotherapy, and psychiatry, and gave us psychoanalysis.

Let’s dive into: Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, looked at the human mind as a large iceberg. Freud described the part of our brain that is above water as our conscious mind: that part of our mind that is aware of our thoughts and feelings. Below, the enormous subconscious holds our desires, memories, and experiences. As an example to better understand our behavior, Freud suggested that we must look to the mysterious depths of our subconscious, the giant iceberg beneath the surface of our conscious mind.

Imagining that the iceberg’s tip is the diligent secretary who meticulously organizes the information on the iceberg. (This iceberg’s tip is the frontal lobe and consciousness). Bellow, a vast unknown (subconscious) teems with boxes full of past events, primitive urges, and suppressed emotions as we battle the problems of the present. If a package shows up unattended, what will happen? What will happen if it arrives unattended? Neurosis, as described by Freud, is characterized by unexplained anxieties and fears. These fears lie in the subconscious mind and are often difficult to recognize. On the other hand, with a PMA mindset, we must see these boxes honestly as they are. This is rather than burying them in our minds because of a negative mental attitude. Please take note that here we are just describing the conscious and the sunconscious as Freud’s illustrations of the tip of the iceberg.

Casting Light on Shadows: The Jungian Perspective

Jung was another fascinating figure who worked in the fields of psychology, psychotherapy, and psychiatry  as well. He understood the subconscious mind better than Frued, I must say after my research.

Let’s dive with Jung.

In contrast to the emphasis Freud placed on our past, Carl Jung, who was a disciple of Freud, put an emphasis on our future. He viewed the subconscious as a guide, filled with archetypes or universal symbols, designed to guide us towards self-realization through various archetypes. Furthermore, our ‘Shadow’, the parts of ourselves we don’t accept, can be explored and integrated in order to gain wisdom and gain insight. (Here is where PMA comes into play – if we know what we truly want, we can make and manage our subconscious in a direction to gain insight as Jung described in “Shadow”).

As at night when sailing, we might be afraid of the dark waters (our Shadow), like when we sail at night. As long as we understand that beneath our surface there lies a compass (our archetypes) that leads us to land (self-realization), it can foster a positive mental outcome and give us hope. Furthermore, by understanding our archetypes and the symbolism of the Shadow–which can be seen as our subconscious–we can learn to navigate our emotions and fears. This will give us the courage to move forward in our lives and reach our goals, even in the face of darkness and uncertainty.

Striving for Superiority: The Adlerian Angle

Having read Ichiro Kishimi’s writings, I was introduced to Adlerian psychology for the first time in June 2023. What a wonderful writer! Adlerian psychology is more in line with positive psychology and PMA mindset philosophy.

Adler took a different path than most of his contemporaries. Seeing us as artists, he saw our lives as blank canvases on which to paint our lives. According to his theory, we are driven to paint our masterpiece by a feeling of inferiority and achieving superiority is what drives us to paint. For instance, Adler believed that someone who felt inferior due to their height would strive to achieve superiority through academic success or excelling in a sport.

Imagine being incapable of regular gym training (inferiority) because you lack strength and discipline. Adler would say that the strength to discipline and fitness comes from within, that it is driven by the desire to view your health from the top (superiority) that drives one to train. Furthermore, a positive mental attitude (PMA) gives us another secret key that lies primarily in the fact that one should see challenges not as boulders blocking your path. Instead, you see challenges as mountains to climb and grow mentally. For instance, rather than feeling discouraged by a difficult workout, one would instead view it as a way to become stronger and more resilient.

Deciphering Emotions: Ekman’s Emotional Intelligence

In the Netflix series “Lie To Me”, I was thrilled to learn for the first time about microexpressions back in 2015 – which made me curious to read more about it. Currently, as I work in the health department with people with autism and other disabilities who cannot speak, I’m using this tool more and more. This tool is part of the PMA Science Toolset and is mentioned in my upcoming book “PMA Science of Psychology” which is scheduled for publication in early 2024.

Let’s dive into Dr. Ekman.

Paul Ekman, through his intense research into microexpressions, established the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) in order to code universal emotions. According to him, recognizing the emotions we are experiencing could help us better understand ourselves and build more successful relationships with others as a result of conscious recognition of these emotions. For instance, Ekman’s research suggests that recognizing anger in oneself can help one manage the emotion and prevent it from escalating into aggression.

Imagine you were watching a movie and you suddenly felt a wave of sadness that came out of nowhere. Ekman’s theory says that recognizing and understanding this emotion is one of the keys to controlling our emotional reactions, since we can control them. Here is where Stoicism fits better. The Stoics would suggest understanding emotions is something we can manage, and anything we can’t, just let it be. As a result, this type of understanding plays a vital part in cultivating a positive mental attitude and helps you become more motivated. For example, if someone says something that hurts your feelings, you can observe your emotions without overreacting.

Positive Mental Attitude: The Napoleon Hill Approach

PMA is something one can learn at an early age (or any age) when one knows what one really wants. When one does not know, one ends up like a ball, meaning anyone can kick you over.  Napoleon Hills’ books Think and Grow Rich and PMA Science of Success are excellent tools.

Let’s dive into Napoleon Hill briefly – the mind behind Think and Grow Rich.

It was Napoleon Hill who highlighted the importance of positive thinking in many of his works “especially” during the Great Depression of 1929, USA. As he put it in his book, “Think and Grow Rich” (1937), we are influenced by our thoughts and thus by our reality. Hill believed that thoughts create our reality, and if we focus on what we want in life and think positively, we can manifest it. He also believed that focusing on the bright side and eliminating negative thoughts and beliefs would lead to success and prosperity.

As Eric Micha’el Leventhal put it: “Thoughts don’t become things; thoughts ARE things.”

In Hill’s philosophy, negative thoughts are like weeds in the garden, while positive thoughts are like beautiful flowers that bloom from the inside out. An intentional effort to cultivate flowers and remove weeds can lead to the creation of a flourishing mental garden, symbolizing the success and fulfillment of a fulfilling life. For instance, each time a negative thought arises, one might replace it with a grateful thought. This can help cultivate a positive outlook on life.

Psychology Meets Stoicism

The Stoics, the grandfathers of positive mental attitude (PMA), positive psychology, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and beyond. In my search to fix my economic failures, anxieties, and worries, and poor self-esteem, I was led to read personal development books such as those by Tony Robins, Bob Proctor, Jim Rhon and Napoleon Hills’ works and many others. I also read lots of psychology books, such as those mentioned above. However, the Stoics gave me the main fundamentals for harmony with 3 discipline principles (perception, action, and will) and 4 virtues (Wisdom, Courage, Justice, and Temperance). Most of my research and reading for a better life points to the wisdom of the stoic. I believe that if we could master the Stoic disciplines, the Stoic virtues, we could have a fantastic mind, body, soul, and life.

Let’s dive into it briefly with stoicism.

A number of Stoic philosophers, including Cleanthes, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius, advocated the control of perception over perception itself. It was their belief that even though we are not always able to control external events, we can always control how we react to them. They believed that by controlling our perception of events, we could maintain our inner peace and emotional equilibrium, regardless of external circumstances. They argued that this control over our own perceptions was the key to true freedom, since it allows us to remain in control of our own lives. For instance, we have no control over what others say or do, but we can choose how we react to it. By choosing to remain calm and level-headed, we can maintain our own sense of peace and freedom.

To learn more about them, please visit here!


Similarly to a surfer on a wave, life may push us toward chaos, but Stoicism teaches us to ride the wave and ride it to our advantage. Understanding how we can change and what we are unable to change is the bedrock of peace and positivity when we embrace the dichotomy of control. For instance, we cannot control the weather, other people’s opinions of us, or the results of our efforts. However, we can control our attitude towards them.

In Closing: Harmonious Integration

The worlds of psychology and stoicism are intertwined beautifully, like a double helix of wisdom. In psychology we learn from them how to observe our minds in the same way that Freudian secretaries, Jungian sailors, Adlerian artists, and Ekman observers observe their minds. In this way, Stoicism and PMA guide us to maintain a positive mental attitude, leading us to be Hill’s gardeners and stoic surfers, i.e. to be stoic thinkers.

By embracing these diverse psychological, psychoanalytic, and philosophical perspectives, we can create a fine symphony of self-realization, resilience, and fulfillment by harmonizing the conscious and subconscious minds. As we live our lives, we become conductors of them, orchestrating a harmonious composition of melodies that are conscious and subconscious at the same time.

The true essence of psychology is thus revealed as the guide to consciously living, with a smile that radiates confidence and a baton at the ready as we face life’s symphony with a confident expression.

If you have any comments or ideas about these topics, please let us know and share them with someone who may benefit from them.

Jay Pacheco

The Neuroscience of PMA

The Neuroscience of PMA

Before I dive into today’s post, I wanted to say thank you to everyone who reads this post! Your appreciation is much appreciated, and now let’s explore how PMA from a neuroscientific perspective can help us better understand the world around us.


Our blog guests today are psychologists Steven Pinker and Paul Ekman. Both psychologists’ work falls under the umbrella of Positive Mental Attitude (PMA) Science. This PMA’s blog will discuss some of their work on personal development and the importance of work in our daily lives. Furthermore, their research examines how it promotes overall well-being psychologically. For instance, Pinker and Ekman’s research suggests that positive thinking can improve mental health, increase productivity, and improve relationships with others.

Bringing together two philosophies and psychology is still in its infancy. These tools will become more prominent as I write blogs, books, podcasts, and courses about the mind, emotions, and virtues. I believe that a combination of Stoicism, Positive Mental Attitude (PMA) and Psychology, as well as cognitive and behavioral techniques, can be a powerful tool to help people find balance and fulfillment in their lives. This will be the focus of my work going forward.

Stoicism, PMA, and Psychology = PMA Science

Steven Pinker and Paul Ekman are included in this short blog for now. Due to the fact that I am quite impressed with their work in psychology and the mind. For such reason, I’m writing and sharing with you this short blog which is just the tip of the iceberg of their research. However, it fits well under the philosophy of Positive Mental Attitude (PMA).


Pinker, Ekman: Psychology Giants

“We will never have a perfect world, but it’s not romantic or naïve to work towards a better one.” – Steven Pinker

Steven Pinker
An award-winning cognitive scientist, psychologist, and linguist, Steven Pinker was born on September 18, 1954. As a child growing up in Montreal, Canada, Pinker became fascinated with human nature at an early age. Known for his advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind, Pinker’s research focuses on visual cognition and language development.

A cornerstone of modern linguistics, “The Language Instinct” (1994), was his first important publication. Throughout the book, it was argued that language is an innate human ability, shaped by evolution for the purpose of communication. His later works, such as “How the Mind Works” (1997) and “The Blank Slate” (2002), further cemented his reputation as a cognitive science pioneer. As a result of positive mental (PMA) influences, our mental processes have been shaped, and the idea that humans are born without innate abilities has been challenged.

One of the world’s most influential intellectuals, Pinker is widely recognized for his rigorous scientific approach. According to his book “Enlightenment Now” (2018), human progress will lead to a brighter future.

“Emotional expressions are, to a considerable extent, under voluntary control, but the capacity to deceive varies among people and even among the various expressions of a particular person.” – Paul Ekman

Paul Ekman
A pioneer in the study of emotions and their relation to facial expressions, Paul Ekman was born on February 15, 1934. During his early years living in Washington, D.C., Ekman encountered a variety of human behaviors that sparked his interest in understanding how emotions are expressed.

Facial expressions between cultures have been universal since the 1960s when he began his groundbreaking work. A comprehensive tool for measuring facial movement was developed from this research, the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). In his work, Ekman demonstrated that emotions and their expressions are universal and biological in nature.

The techniques Ekman developed for detecting deception were part of the research he conducted. As a result of his findings on microexpressions – fleeting facial expressions that reveal true emotions – training programs were developed for law enforcement and a variety of other fields.

In addition to influencing entertainment and popular culture, his work gained wide attention outside academia. Based on his research, the TV series “Lie to Me” depicted a protagonist who was an expert in deception detection.


It’s no secret that our mental states profoundly influence our daily lives. Whether it’s our performance at work or relationships or our overall well-being, our mental health plays a significant role in the quality of our lives. In recent research, the neuroscience of emotions is examined to gain an understanding of the benefits of a positive mental attitude (PMA). Steven Pinker and Paul Ekman, both leading figures in the field of cognitive psychology, have authored papers on this topic.

Note: Napoleon Hill popularized Positive Mental Attitude in his book Think and Grow Rich (1937).

According to Pinker, a researcher in cognitive science and psycholinguistics, human cognition is essentially a combinatorial process. A small number of elementary units can be combined in countless ways to produce infinite thoughts and behaviors. As a result of this understanding of our cognitive ability, we can conclude that positivity is more than just a buzzword. Rather, it is a scientifically proven tool that can help us shape our thinking patterns to lead to more positive outcomes. By incorporating positivity into our lives, we can tap into the power of human cognition to produce more positive results in our lives. For instance, positive self-talk can help us to become more confident and motivated, while positive affirmations can help us to stay focused and direct our energy towards our goals.

Paul Ekman, a researcher who has studied the connection between facial expressions and emotions, proposes that emotions are actually physiological states whose manifestation is manifest through our body’s reactions. In Ekman’s research, emotions are shown to be more than just subjective experiences but are deeply rooted in our minds and brains. Ekman’s research suggests that our emotions are not simply rooted in our subjective experiences, but are also connected to our physical responses, such as facial expressions, providing further evidence of the powerful influence our emotions have on us. For example, Ekman showed that facial expressions of emotions are universal, and not limited to a single culture or language.

The findings suggest that neuroscience, emotions, and PMA are intertwined in fascinating ways. The feelings we experience are closely related to our physical states and can be discerned through objective measures. Additionally, we have the ability to alter these emotional states through our cognitive abilities, which points to the potential of PMA. This indicates that the power of positive thinking is not just a popular adage, but a real phenomenon with far-reaching implications for the study of psychology and neuroscience. For instance, research indicates that people with a more optimistic worldview have higher levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter associated with happiness. For example, in a 2016 study published in the journal Mindfulness, researchers found that after 8 weeks of teaching participants mindfulness-based stress reduction, their levels of optimism had increased significantly compared to a control group.

PMA is about maintaining a positive attitude, regardless of the circumstances, not ignoring them. Positive outcomes can be achieved when we approach these situations with the belief that we can succeed. As a result of framing our experiences in a positive way, our brains release dopamine and serotonin. Not only do neurotransmitters promote happiness, but they also enhance memory and attention. Furthermore, when we view our experiences from a positive perspective, we open ourselves to new possibilities and opportunities, allowing us to approach challenges with more creative solutions.

Considering these findings, how can we apply them to our daily lives? In order to achieve PMA, we need to develop emotional literacy, which is the ability to recognize emotions in others and to respond appropriately to them. For instance, when someone expresses anger, we should take the time to identify the emotion and process it in a constructive manner, such as by asking questions to try and understand the person’s perspective.

The cultivation of PMA can be facilitated by mindfulness and gratitude. By practicing mindfulness, we learn to live in the present, appreciate the moment, and reduce our negative thoughts. Similarly, expressing gratitude consistently fosters an optimistic outlook by shifting our focus toward positive aspects. For instance, journaling what we are grateful for every day can help us to build our capacity for PMA, as it helps to build our optimism and trust in the future.

Using Ekman’s Facial Action Coding System (FACS) could help improve emotional literacy. Using this system, which categorizes human facial movements, we can enhance our emotional intelligence and better understand our emotions and those of others. For example, Ekman’s FACS can be used to more accurately interpret subtle facial expressions, such as a slight raising of the eyebrows or the curling of the lips, which may indicate surprise or amusement.

The conclusions Pinker and Ekman draw from their research offer a persuasive argument in favor of PMA and neuroscience. When we adopt a positive mindset and develop our emotional literacy, we can improve our mental and physical health, leading to improved productivity and well-being. The purpose of embracing PMA science goes beyond feeling well; it’s about creating a life that is more fulfilling and balanced. This suggests that the purpose of adopting a positive mindset and emotional literacy is not only to feel well but to lead a life that is more meaningful and rewarding.

I hope you enjoy this blog and encourage you to share your experiences. My goal is to continue to share tools for the mind, emotions, and virtues with you.

Psychology: Neurons and the Mind.

I have compiled a comprehensive article on psychology, neurons, and the mind with references from academic textbooks and real examples. And to further emphasize the importance of neurons and the mind in psychology, this article includes researched findings and first-hand accounts from experts in the field. For instance, the article discusses the role of neurons in the formation of memories and how the mind can influence behavior and emotions.


Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes, which includes the study of neurons and how they contribute to the functioning of the mind. Psychologists study both conscious and unconscious processes, such as thoughts, emotions, beliefs, and motivations. They use this knowledge to help people understand and manage their thoughts, feelings, and behavior.

This article will explore the basics of psychology, neurons, and the mind, with examples drawn from academic textbooks such as Physiology of Behavior, Cognitive Psychology, and Introduction to Psychology. For instance, the text Physiology of Behavior includes an explanation of how neurons communicate with one another. This explanation explains how this communication is integral to the functioning of the brain and behavior.



Psychology is a broad field of study that encompasses many different areas of research and practice. According to Myers (2014), “Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and cognitive processes” (p. 2). It seeks to understand why people think, feel, and act in certain ways, and how these processes are influenced by a range of biological, social, and environmental factors. By understanding these factors, psychologists can help people identify, analyze, and manage their thoughts and feelings to improve their mental health and well-being. Psychologists also use their knowledge to develop treatments and interventions for mental health issues, as well as to inform public policy decisions. For instance, psychologists can conduct research to investigate the effects of poverty on mental health and create interventions to help people cope with the psychological distress associated with it. As a result, psychologists play an invaluable role in helping people to deal with mental health issues, both on an individual and societal level.



Neurons are specialized cells that make up the nervous system and play a critical role in how the mind functions. According to Carlson (2013), “neurons are the basic units of the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information” (p. 49). Neurons have three main parts: the cell body, the axon, and the dendrites. The cell body contains the nucleus, which controls the cell’s functions. The axon is a long, thin extension that transmits electrical signals away from the cell body. The dendrites are shorter extensions that receive signals from other neurons. Neurons communicate with each other through a process called neurotransmission, which involves the release of chemicals called neurotransmitters. According to Carlson (2013), “the release and binding of neurotransmitters are the means by which neurons communicate with each other” (p. 63). This process allows neurons to transmit signals quickly and efficiently throughout the nervous system.

Example: An example of the importance of neurons in behavior can be seen in the study of Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. One of the hallmarks of the disease is the loss of neurons in the brain that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine. As a result, people with Parkinson’s disease may experience tremors, difficulty with movement, and other symptoms.

Furthermore, the loss of these neurons can cause an imbalance in the neurotransmitters in the brain. This can lead to impairments in motor control and other behaviors seen in Parkinson’s disease. Without these neurons, the brain cannot properly send the signals needed for normal movement.


The Mind:


The mind is a complex concept that refers to the brain’s ability to process information, make decisions, and experience emotions. According to Myers (2014), “The mind encompasses an individual’s subjective experience of the world and the mental activities of perception, thought, memory, and feeling” (p. 100). The mind is also influenced by many different factors, including genetics, the environment, and experiences.

One of the most significant theories in psychology is the biopsychosocial model, which suggests that the mind is influenced by biological, psychological, and social factors. For example, depression may be caused by a combination of genetic factors, life experiences, and social support. The biopsychosocial model became popular in 1977 when George Engel, a psychiatrist, and internist at the University of Rochester Medical Center in New York, published his seminal paper on the topic.

Example: An example of the mind at work can be seen in the study of memory. Memory is a complex process that involves the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information. Researchers have shown that memory is influenced by many different factors, including attention, emotion, and context. For example, a person may remember a traumatic event more vividly than a routine event due to the emotional significance of the experience. Memory is the process of encoding, storing, and retrieving information.



Psychology, neurons, and the mind are interrelated concepts that are critical to our understanding of human behavior and mental processes. By studying these topics, we can gain a deeper understanding of why people think, feel, and act in certain ways. This will enable us to better understand and improve our own behavior and mental health. Examples drawn from academic textbooks demonstrate the real-world applications of these concepts and provide insight into the complex workings of the mind. For example, psychological theories can be used to explain and predict behavior and mental processes such as decision-making, problem-solving, and emotions. Neurons are the basic building blocks of the nervous system and are responsible for transmitting information from one part of the body to another. By studying how neurons interact with one another and how they process information, we can gain a better understanding of how our minds work. This understanding can help us better understand and manage our own behavior and mental health.


I hope this article has been informative for you and feel free to share it with your friends. Also, if you are interested in learning more about other topics, let us know.


Jay Pacheco



Carlson, N. R. (2013). Physiology of Behavior (11th ed.). Pearson.

Carlson, N. R. (2022). Psychology of Behavior (13th ed.). Pearson.

Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry (4th ed). Melbourne Univ.

Nigel Holt, Ronald Smith (2019). Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behaviour. McGraw-Hill

Tools of PMA Science

Toolkit: PMA, Stoicism, Psychology

I’ve been asked if thinking is difficult and my answer is yes.

It has been a question I have asked, and I have gotten more answers about what it isn’t than what it is.

Let’s take a look at Carl Jung’s famous quote.

“Thinking is difficult, that is why most people judge” – Carl Jung

Like many people, I have always loved this quote, but it turns out he never actually said it. However, he did say Thinking is difficult, therefore let the herd pronounce judgment!, which may explain the misappropriation. Jung’s similar quote appears on page 46 of ‘Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies’, first published in English in 1959 and later included as part of the Collected Works of C.G. Jung – Civilization in Transition – Volume 10.

As a result of the above quote in 2019, I began reading in order to find out whether Jung was right or wrong. As such, I’m presenting the following toolkit on this blog to enlighten us with tools from Jung, Freud, Rene Descartes, etc. For example, I recently read about Descartes’ concept of “Cogito Ergo Sum” which translates to “I think, therefore I am”. This concept suggests that by doubting our own existence, we can come to the realization that we exist.

Furthermore, Rene Descartes was an avid reader of Stoicism, as I describe briefly in my book The Stoic Journey: Traveling to Learn Emotional Control.

When it comes to thinking for oneself, there are many different approaches one can take. However, one combination that has proven to be particularly effective is that of psychology, positive mental attitude (PMA), and stoicism.

Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior, and can be incredibly useful in helping individuals understand themselves and their thought patterns. Positive mental attitude, on the other hand, is a mindset that focuses on optimism and positivity, even in the face of adversity. Additionally, Stoicism emphasizes the importance of living according to reason and virtue, and accepting whatever life throws at you with equanimity.

When these three approaches are combined, individuals can develop a powerful toolkit for thinking for themselves. Here’s how it works:

  1. Psychology helps individuals understand their own minds.

By studying psychology, individuals can gain a deeper understanding of their own thought patterns and behaviors. For example, they may come to realize that they tend to dramatize situations or that they struggle with anxiety. Armed with this knowledge, they can begin to make changes and develop healthier thought patterns. With this understanding, individuals can work to identify the root causes of their thoughts and behaviors and develop strategies for addressing them. Additionally, by recognizing their own patterns, they can be more mindful of how they respond to situations and be better equipped to make positive changes in their lives.

  1. PMA helps individuals stay positive and focused on their goals.

When individuals adopt a positive mental attitude, they are better equipped to deal with the ups and downs of life. Instead of getting bogged down by setbacks or failures, they are able to stay focused on their goals and maintain a sense of optimism. This can be incredibly helpful when trying to think for oneself, as it allows individuals to stay true to their own values and aspirations. Having a positive attitude can help individuals to think more clearly and make better decisions. It helps to keep them motivated and focused on their goals, even in the face of adversity. Plus, it can have a positive effect on their physical and mental health, as it reduces stress and encourages them to stay balanced.

  1. Stoicism helps individuals accept what they cannot change.

Finally, stoicism can be incredibly helpful in teaching individuals how to accept things they cannot change. By focusing on reason and virtue, individuals can learn to let go of things outside of their control and instead place their attention on what they can control – their own thoughts, behaviors, and reactions. This can be incredibly helpful in allowing individuals to think for themselves. This is because it frees them from worrying about external factors and allows them to focus on their own internal compass. Reason and virtue provide a framework for making decisions and taking action. By learning to rely on this internal compass, rather than external influences, individuals are better able to make decisions that are in their own true interest, rather than in the interest of someone else. This can help them to become more self-reliant and self-sufficient.

When these three approaches are combined, you as an individual can develop a powerful toolkit for thinking for yourself. By understanding your own mind, staying positive and focused on your own goals, and accepting what you cannot change, you can develop a strong sense of self. This will enable you to make decisions that are true to your own values and aspirations. So if you’re looking to think for yourself, consider incorporating psychology, a positive mental attitude, and stoicism into your own approach. You can overcome obstacles and achieve your goals by applying psychological principles such as self-determination theory and a growth mindset.

Share which tool you are currently using or browse articles on this site to learn more!

Jay Pacheco

The Fascinating Tools to Explore The Mind

Fascinating tools to understand the mind by blending psychology, neuropsychology, neuroplasticity, Stoicism, and Positive Mental Attitude (PMA).

PMA Science is what we call it!

Welcome to the fascinating world of psychology and neuroplasticity! In brief, here we will explore how your brain impacts your behavior, thoughts, and emotions in a short introduction to these branches of mental science.

In addition, this piece will conclude with a tiny connection between psychology, neuropsychology, neuroplasticity, positive mental attitude (PMA), and stoicism.


The study of psychology involves the analysis of the mind, behavior, and mental processes. It explains how humans and animals think, feel, and behave. It also explains the underlying psychological processes that govern these processes. It aims to understand the way people and animals think, feel, and behave.

Among the major functions of psychology is to describe, explain, predict, and modify behavior in chemical and electrical processes.

Description involves identifying and classifying behaviors and mental processes, such as emotions, thoughts, and attitudes.

Explanation involves determining the causes and underlying processes that give rise to these behaviors and mental processes.

Prediction involves using this knowledge to make accurate forecasts about future behavior and mental processes.

Modification involves developing and implementing strategies to change behavior and mental processes in a desired way, such as through therapeutic interventions or behavior modification techniques.

In addition, psychology encompasses a wide range of subfields, including social psychology, developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, clinical psychology, and many more. Its applications are far-reaching and diverse, and include fields such as education, health care, business, and law enforcement, among others.

Exploring and becoming familiar with the inner workings of your brain can help you gain a deeper understanding of how it influences your behavior, thoughts, and emotions. Lastly, your brain is responsible for processing information from your environment, storing memories, and coordinating your body’s movements.

Psychology 1.1:

The brain is made up of several different structures, each with its own unique functions. The cerebrum, or outer layer of the brain, is responsible for higher-level thinking, such as reasoning, problem-solving, and decision-making. The cerebellum, located at the back of the brain, is responsible for controlling movement and balance. The brainstem, located at the base of the brain, is crucial for regulating key bodily functions, such as breathing and heart rate.

For example one of the most significant functions of the brain is its ability to regulate your emotions. The limbic system, a group of structures located deep within the brain, is responsible for processing emotions and regulating your responses to them. For example, when you feel threatened or afraid, the amygdala, a part of the limbic system, sends a signal to the rest of the brain, triggering the “fight or flight” response.

Your brain also plays a significant role in your thoughts and perceptions. The way you interpret and process information is influenced by your brain’s structure and function. For example, people who suffer from depression may have an imbalance of certain neurotransmitters in their brain, which can impact their mood, thoughts, and behaviors.

By studying the brain, psychologists and neuropsychologists can gain a better understanding of how it influences behavior, thoughts, and emotions. This knowledge can be used to develop interventions and therapies that can help individuals overcome psychological and neurological disorders. Through ongoing research and exploration, we continue to learn more about the inner workings of the brain and how it shapes our daily lives.

Neurons & Synapses Interaction

Throughout the nervous system and brain, neurons play a fundamental role. They are specialized cells that transmit and process information through electrical and chemical signals. The basic function of neurons is to communicate with other neurons, muscles, or glands in the body.

Each neuron consists of a cell body, dendrites, and an axon. Dendrites are tree-like branches that receive signals from other neurons, while the axon is a long, thin fiber that carries the signal away from the cell body to other neurons. The end of the axon forms a specialized structure called a synapse, which allows the neuron to transmit its signal to another neuron or to a muscle or gland.

Synapses are the connections between neurons that allow them to communicate with one another. When a neuron receives a signal from a neighboring neuron, it fires an electric impulse that travels down the thaxon. This impulse triggers the release of chemicals called neurotransmitters at the synapse. These neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the receiving neuron. This causes an electrical signal to be generated in that neuron, which in turn can generate a new electrical signal or relay the signal to other neurons.

The interaction between neurons and synapses is what allows the brain to process and integrate information from the environment and generate appropriate responses. The brain contains billions of neurons that are connected by trillions of synapses, forming complex neural networks that underlie all aspects of cognition, emotion, perception, and behavior.

Different regions of the brain contain specialized neural networks that are involved in different functions, such as vision, hearing, movement, language, and memory. The precise patterns of neural activity within these networks determine how the brain processes and responds to incoming information, and how it generates complex behaviors and experiences.

Overall, the functions of neurons, synapses, and their interaction within the brain are essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. This is essential for all aspects of human experience and behavior.


Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology concerned with how a person’s cognition and behavior are related to the brain and the rest of the nervous system. Professionals in this branch of psychology often focus on how injuries or illnesses of the brain affect cognitive and behavioral functions.

2.2 Exploring Neuropsychology

Exploring the basic structure and functions of the brain is essential to understanding how it works and how it influences behavior, thoughts, and emotions.

Researchers use a variety of techniques to study the brain, including neuroimaging, electrophysiology, and lesion studies.

Since science has divided the brain into several different structures, each with its own unique functions. The following parts of the brain function in this manner, making it easier for neuropsychologists to study and understand. The cerebrum, or outer layer of the brain, is divided into two hemispheres, the left and the right. The left hemisphere is responsible for language processing, logical thinking, and analytical reasoning.

The right hemisphere is responsible for creativity, spatial awareness, and emotional processing. The cerebellum, located at the back of the brain, is essential for coordinating movement and balance. The brainstem, located at the base of the brain, is responsible for regulating various bodily functions, such as breathing and heart rate.

Neuroimaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), allow researchers to visualize the structure and activity of the brain. By tracking blood flow or the distribution of certain chemicals in the brain, researchers can gain insight into how the brain functions during different tasks or in response to different stimuli.

Electrophysiological techniques, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG), measure the electrical and magnetic activity of the brain. These techniques can help researchers understand how different brain regions communicate with one another and how the brain processes sensory information.

Lesion studies involve examining the brains of individuals who have experienced brain damage due to injury or disease. By studying the effects of damage on a person’s behavior and cognitive functioning, researchers can gain insight into the functions of different brain regions. This is at the neuron and synaptic levels.

By using the above and other techniques, researchers continue to uncover new information about the structure and function of the brain. This knowledge can be used to develop interventions and therapies for individuals with neurological and psychological disorders. The study of the brain is an ongoing and ever-evolving field, with new discoveries and breakthroughs occurring every day.

  1. Neuroplasticity basics explained

Neuroplasticity refers to the brain’s ability to change and adapt in response to various learning experiences, learning, and injury. It is the process by which the brain creates new connections between neurons or strengthens existing ones, allowing for the formation of new neural pathways. This means that the brain is not a static, unchanging structure, but rather a highly dynamic and flexible organ that is constantly reshaping itself throughout our lives. Neuroplasticity can be harnessed for positive outcomes, such as recovering from injury, improving cognitive abilities, or enhancing learning and memory.

Connecting PMA and Stoicism:

Exploring the inner workings of your brain can be useful in developing a positive mental attitude and practicing stoicism.

Understanding how your brain impacts your behavior, thoughts, and emotions can help you identify areas for improvement and develop strategies for managing negative thoughts and emotions.

Note: 1

In Positive Mental Attitude (PMA) Science and Stoicism, the brain is the hardware, and the mind is the software (bios or pure astral energy), whereas all other sciences call the brain and the mind the same thing.

Psychology, Neuroscience, and Neuroplasticity can provide a great deal of insight into the hardware (brain) and some parts of the bios (mind) in detail. Alternatively, Stoicism and PMA focus primarily on the mind and cosmic and nature philosophical level (BIOS/THOUGHT/ MINDSET), coupled with a decision to live in harmony with nature and stress the things we can control and the things we cannot control, along with our understanding of nature and our own feelings. This could be the canvas where we choose to rewrite our mental codes if we want to rewrite a happy thought for example.

Note 2.

Due to their nature disabilities, people born with disabilities can’t rewrite their mindset! -or perhaps needs more study?


Positive mental attitude is a mindset state characterized by optimism, resilience, and a belief in one’s abilities to overcome challenges. By understanding how the brain processes and responds to different stimuli, you can develop techniques for training your brain to focus on positive thoughts and emotions. For example, practicing gratitude, focusing on your strengths, and engaging in activities that bring you joy can help boost your mood and build a positive mental attitude.


It is a philosophy that emphasizes the importance of self-control, rationality, and acceptance of the present moment. By understanding how the brain processes emotions, you can develop techniques for managing negative thoughts and emotions and practicing stoicism. For example, mindfulness meditation can help you cultivate a non-judgmental awareness of your thoughts and emotions, allowing you to respond to them in a calm and rational manner. Similarly, reframing negative thoughts and practicing cognitive restructuring can help you challenge and change negative thought patterns.

The World of the Mind and its Tools

The study of the brain in psychology has revealed that the brain is highly adaptable. This is because it is capable of changing its structure and function in response to varying experiences and learning. This ability of the brain to change is known as neuroplasticity.

Positive mental attitude and stoicism are two concepts that have been associated with psychological well-being and resilience. Positive mental attitudes involve cultivating optimistic and constructive thinking patterns, whereas stoicism involves accepting things that are beyond our control and focusing on the present moment.

Research has shown that positive mental attitude and stoicism can have a significant impact on the brain and its function. For example, positive thinking has been shown to activate certain areas of the brain associated with reward and motivation. Negative thinking can activate areas associated with stress and anxiety. Similarly, practicing stoicism can help reduce stress and anxiety by promoting a sense of acceptance and equanimity.

Neuroplasticity is also relevant to positive mental attitude and stoicism. This is because it suggests that these attitudes can be cultivated through intentional practice and can lead to lasting changes in the brain. For example, research has shown that mindfulness meditation, which involves focusing on the present moment and accepting one’s thoughts and emotions without judgment, can increase the density of gray matter in areas of the brain associated with attention and emotional regulation.

In addition, neuroplasticity suggests that individuals can overcome negative thinking patterns and develop positive mental attitude through intentional practice and cognitive restructuring. For example, cognitive-behavioural therapy is a form of therapy that is based on the idea that negative thoughts and beliefs can be changed through conscious effort and practice, leading to improvements in mental health and well-being.

Overall, the study of the brain in psychology and neuroplasticity can help us understand how positive mental attitude and stoicism can lead to improved mental health and well-being, and how intentional practice can promote lasting changes in the brain. By cultivating positive mental attitude and practicing stoicism, individuals can learn to cope with life’s challenges in a healthy and adaptive way, leading to greater resilience and emotional well-being.

Final thoughts

Exploring the inner workings of your brain can be a powerful tool in developing a positive mental attitude and practicing stoicism.

Stoicism, the philosophy that teaches individuals to focus on what they can control, rather than what they cannot. This is done to maintain a calm and rational mindset in the face of challenges.

Neuroplasticity can be harnessed to strengthen the neural pathways that support positive mental attitudes and stoicism. For example, research has shown that regularly practicing mindfulness meditation can lead to changes in the brain that increase empathy, emotional regulation, and cognitive flexibility – all traits that are associated with a positive mental attitude and stoicism.

Similarly, intentionally focusing on positive thoughts and experiences, and consciously choosing to interpret events in a positive light, can help reinforce the neural pathways that support these attitudes. Over time, these practices can become habitual, and the brain will naturally default to a more cheerful and stoic outlook.

It’s helpful to note that neuroplasticity is not a quick fix, and changing the brain takes time and consistent effort. But with patience and persistence, it is possible to rewire the brain (thoughts) to support a more positive and stoic mindset, leading to enhanced resilience and well-being.

As a final example, we have Dr. Joe Dispenza as a living person. He decided to be a better person by practicing gratitude with a positive mental attitude. He recovered from his injuries quicker because he decided to have a positive mindset. And now Joe Dispenza, is a neuroscientist, researcher, and New York Times bestselling author. -Evolve Your Brain: The Science of Changing Your Mind.

Let us know in the comments below what you’d like to learn more about. Also, let us know how this article might help you cope with your daily struggles using psychology, neuroplasticity, PMA, and stoicism?

Jay Pacheco